Social Media Wiki Page

Social media employ web- and mobile-based technologies to support interactive dialogue and “introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations, communities, and individuals.” Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein define social media as “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content.[1] Social media are social software which mediate human communication. When the technologies are in place, social media is ubiquitously accessible, and enabled by scalable[clarification needed] communication techniques. In the year 2012, social media became one of the most powerful sources for news updates through platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, and Google+.

[edit] Social media

[edit] Classification of social media

Social media technologies take on many different forms including magazines, social network aggregation platforms. Social media network websites include sites like Facebook, Twitter, Bebo and MySpace.

[edit] Mobile social media

Social media applications used on mobile devices are called mobile social media. In comparison to traditional social media running on computers, mobile social media display a higher location- and time-sensitivity. One can differentiate between four types of mobile social media applications, depending on whether the message takes account of the specific location of the user (location-sensitivity) and whether it is received and processed by the user instantaneously or with a time delay (time-sensitivity).[2]

  1. Space-timers (location and time sensitive): Exchange of messages with relevance for one specific location at one specific point-in time (e.g., Foursquare)
  2. Space-locators (only location sensitive): Exchange of messages, with relevance for one specific location, which are tagged to a certain place and read later by others (e.g., Qype)
  3. Quick-timers (only time sensitive): Transfer of traditional social media applications to mobile devices to increase immediacy (e.g., posting Facebook status updates)
  4. Slow-timers (neither location, nor time sensitive): Transfer of traditional social media applications to mobile devices (for example, watching a YouTube video or reading a Wikipedia entry)


Mobile social media can also be used on the go when one is not near a personal computer or laptop. With the emergence of new devices such as tablets, iPods, phones, and other new products, there is no use for sitting at home using a PC[clarification needed]. While photo sharing was introduced by Facebook and other existing social media sites, Instagram is a recent addition to the social media scene. Mobile social media is a relatively new platform since it is contingent on mobile devices’ ability to access the Internet.

[edit] Patents

Number of US social network patent applications published and patents issued per year since 2003.[3]

There has been rapid growth in the number of US patent applications that cover new technologies related to social media, and the number of them that are published has been growing rapidly over the past five years. There are now over 2000 published patent applications.[5]

[edit] Purpose

[edit] Distinction from industrial media

Businesses[citation needed]

People obtain information, education, news and other data from electronic and print media. Social media are distinct from industrial or traditional media, such as newspapers, television, and film as they are comparatively inexpensive and accessible to enable anyone (even private individuals) to publish or access information. Industrial media[clarification needed] generally require significant resources to publish information.

One characteristic shared by both social and industrial media is the capability to reach small or large audiences; for example, either a blog post or a television show may reach no people or millions of people. Some of the properties that help describe the differences between social and industrial media are:[citation needed]

  1. Reach – both industrial and social media technologies provide scale and are capable of reaching a global audience. Industrial media, however, typically use a centralized framework for organization, production, and dissemination, whereas social media are by their very nature more decentralized, less hierarchical, and distinguished by multiple points of production and utility.
  2. Frequency – the number of time an advertisement is display on social media platforms.
  3. Accessibility – the means of production for industrial media are typically government and/or corporate (privately-owned); social media tools are generally available to the public at little or no cost.
  4. Usability – industrial media production typically requires specialized skills and training. Conversely, most social media production requires only modest reinterpretation of existing skills; in theory, anyone with access can operate the means of social media production.
  5. Immediacy – the time lag between communications produced by industrial media can be long (days, weeks, or even months) compared to social media (which can be capable of virtually instantaneous responses). However, as industrial media begins adopting aspects of production normally associated with social media tools, this feature may not prove distinctive over time.[how?]
  6. Permanence – industrial media, once created, cannot be altered (once a magazine article is printed and distributed changes cannot be made to that same article) whereas social media can be altered almost instantaneously by comments or editing.

Community media constitute a hybrid of industrial and social media. Though community-owned, some community radio, TV and newspapers are run by professionals and some by amateurs. They use both social and industrial media frameworks.

Social media has also been recognized for the way in which it has changed how public relations professionals conduct their jobs. It has provided an open arena where people are free to exchange ideas on companies, brands and products. As stated by Doc Searls and David Wagner, two authorities on the effects of Internet on marketing, advertising, and PR, “the best of the people in PR are not PR Types at all. They understand that there aren’t censors, they’re the company’s best conversationalists.”[6] Social media provides an environment where users and PR professionals can converse, where PR professionals can promote their brand and improve their company’s image, by listening and responding to what the public is saying about their product.

[edit] Managing social media

There is also an increasing trend towards using social media Return on investment, competitor-auditing and engagement. Tools range from free, basic applications to subscription-based, more in-depth tools.

The honeycomb framework defines how social media services focus on some or all of seven functional building blocks (identity, conversations, sharing, presence, relationships, reputation, and groups). These building blocks help understand the engagement needs of the social media audience. For instance, Twitter.

[edit] Building “social authority” and vanity

It is through this process of “building social authority” that social media becomes effective: One of the foundational concepts in social media has become that you cannot completely control your message through social media but rather you can simply begin to participate in the “conversation” expecting that you can achieve a significant influence in that conversation.[7]

However, this conversation participation must be cleverly executed because while people are resistant to marketing in general, they are even more resistant to direct or overt marketing through social media platforms. This may seem counterintuitive but is the main reason building social authority with credibility is so important. A marketer can generally not expect people to be receptive to a marketing message in and of itself. In the Edelman Trust Barometer report in 2008, the majority (58%) of the respondents reported they most trusted company or product information coming from “people like me” inferred to be information from someone they trusted. In the 2010 Trust Report, the majority switched to 64% preferring their information from industry experts and academics. According to Inc. Technology’s Brent Leary, “This loss of trust, and the accompanying turn towards experts and authorities, seems to be coinciding with the rise of social media and networks.”[9]

[edit] Internet usage effects

An increasing number of scholars have sought to study and measure the impact of social media (such as the Museum of Social Media). A 2010 study by the [13]

Several colleges[which?] have even introduced classes on best social media practices, preparing students for potential careers as digital strategists.[14]

There are various statistics that account for social media usage and effectiveness for individuals worldwide. Some of the most recent statistics are as follows:

  • Social networking now accounts for 22% of all time spent online in the US.[15]
  • A total of 234 million people age 13 and older in the U.S. used mobile devices in December 2009.[16]
  • Twitter processed more than one billion tweets in December 2009 and averages almost 40 million tweets per day.[16]
  • Over 25% of U.S. Internet page views occurred at one of the top social networking sites in December 2009, up from 13.8% a year before.[16]
  • Australia has some of the highest social media usage in the world. In usage of Facebook, Australia ranks highest, with over nine million users spending almost nine hours per month on the site.[17]
  • The number of social media users age 65 and older grew 100 percent throughout 2010, so that one in four people in that age group are now part of a social networking site.[18]
  • As of May 2012 Facebook has 901 million users.[19]
  • Social media has overtaken pornography as the No. 1 activity on the web.[20]
  • In June 2011, it was reported that iPhone applications hit one billion in nine months, and Facebook added 100 million users in less than nine months.[20]
  • If Facebook were a country it would be the world’s third largest in terms of population, larger even than the US.
  • In June 2011, it was also reported that U.S. Department of Education study revealed that online students out-performed those receiving face-to-face instruction.[20]
  • YouTube is the second largest search engine in the world.[20]
  • In four minutes and 26 seconds 100+ hours of video will be uploaded to YouTube.[20]
  • One out of eight couples married in the U.S. last year met via social media according to statistics released June 2011.[20]
  • One in six higher education students are enrolled in an online curriculum.[20]
  • In November 2011, it was reported Indians spend more time on social media than on any other activity on the Internet.[21]
  • 1 in 5 divorces are blamed on Facebook. Tony Cooper, “One in Five U.S. Divorces Fueled by Facebook, Social Media, Recent survey by AAML shows Facebook-related antics, extramarital activity burgeoning,” San Diego News,

According to a report by Nielsen[22]

“In the U.S. alone, total minutes spent on social networking sites has increased 83 percent year-over-year. In fact, total minutes spent on Facebook increased nearly 700 percent year-over-year, growing from 1.7 billion minutes in April 2008 to 13.9 billion in April 2009, making it the No. 1 social networking site for the month.”

[edit] Facebook

The main increase in social media has been Facebook. It was ranked as the number one social networking site.[[23] In an effort to supplant Facebook’s dominance, Google launched Google+ in the summer of 2011.

[edit] Impacts on history and memory

News media and television journalism have been instrumental in the shaping of American collective memory for much of the twentieth century.[26]

Nonetheless, as Kony 2012 campaign, which surfaced first on YouTube and later garnered a great amount of attention from mainstream news media journalists, who now monitor social media sites to inform their reports on the movement. In short, the growing social media trend is allowing greater participation in telling the stories of America’s past and present, and certainly, shaping its future. And although social media networking sites may be short-lived, they prove highly effective in helping the American public remember historic events and in shaping the meanings inscribed in those events.

[edit] Criticisms

British-American entrepreneur and author Andrew Keen criticizes social media in his book The Cult of the Amateur, writing, “Out of this anarchy, it suddenly became clear that what was governing the infinite monkeys now inputting away on the Internet was the law of digital Darwinism, the survival of the loudest and most opinionated. Under these rules, the only way to intellectually prevail is by infinite filibustering.”[33] This is also relative to the issue “justice” in the social network. For example, the phenomenon “Human flesh search engine” in Asia raised the discussion of “private-law” brought by social network platform.

[edit] Exclusiveness

Tim Berners-Lee contends that the danger of social networking sites is that most are silos and do not allow users to port data from one site to another. He also cautions against social networks that grow too big and become a monopoly as this tends to limit innovation.[34]

[edit] Disparity

covers traditional economic interests that are structured to ensure that wealth is pumped up to the top of the economic pyramid, perpetuating the digital divide and post Marxian class conflict. He also voices concern over the trend that finds social utilities operating in a quasi-libertarian global environment of oligopoly that requires users in economically challenged nations to spend high percentages of annual income to pay for devices and services to participate in the social media lifestyle.

Neil Postman also contends that social media will increase an information disparity between winners – who are able to use the social media actively – and losers – who are not familiar with modern technologies.

[edit] Trustworthiness

Since large-scale collaborative co-creation is one of the main way forming information in the social network, Aniket Kittur and Bongowon Suh took Wiki under examination and indicated that, “One possibility is that distrust of wiki Content is not due to the inherently mutable nature of the system but instead to the lack of available information for judging trustworthiness.”[35]

[edit] Concentration

From Nicholas Carr, “fast (Internet/social) media and deep slow thought don’t mix well.” As media theorist Marshall McLuhan pointed out in 1960s, “Medias are not just passive channel of information.” “They supply the stuff of thought, but they also shape the process of thought. And what the Net seems to be doing is chipping away my capacity for concentration and contemplation.” However, there are several benefits brought from deep reading. For example, “our ability to interpret text, to make the rich mental connection that form when we read deeply and without distraction, remains largely disengaged. ” But under need of convenience, we would not choose this non-rapid way. [36]

[edit] Few real impacts

From Malcolm Gladwell, “The role of social media in protests and revolutions is grossly overstated.” “It(social media) makes it easier for activists to express themselves ,and harder for that expression to have any impact.” Because “social networks are effective at increasing participation – by lessing the level of motivation that participation requires.” In other words, “it succeeds not by motivating people to make real sacrifice but by motivating them to do the things that people do when they are not motivated enough to make a real sacrifice.”[37]

[edit] Reliability

Evgeny Morozov, 2009-2010 Yahoo fellow at Georgetown University contends that the contents uploaded to Twitter may have little relevance to the rest of the people who do not use Twitter. On the article “Iran: Downside to the “Twitter Revolution”” in the magazine “Dissent” fall 2009[38], he says, “Twitter only adds to the noise: it’s simply impossible to pack much context into its 140 characters. All other biases are present as well: in a country like Iran it’s mostly pro-Western, technology-friendly and iPod-carrying young people who are the natural and most frequent users of Twitter. They are a tiny and, most important, extremely untypical segment of the Iranian population (the number of Twitter users in Iran — a country of more than seventy million people.)”

Even in the United States, the birth-country of Twitter, has only 107.7 milion accounts(Media Bistro, 2012) in Twitter. Since there can be many multi-account users and there are more than 314.7 milion population in U.S.(U.S. POPClock Projection”. U.S. Census Bureau., 2012), only limited groups of people use Twitter in U.S..

Indiana University dean and professor Matthew Auer casts doubt on the conventional wisdom that social media are open and participatory. He also speculates on the emergence of “anti-social media” used as “instruments of pure control”.[39]

[edit] Ownership of social media content

Social media content is generated through social media interactions done by the users through the site. There has always been a huge debate on the ownership of the content on social media platforms since it is generated by the users and hosted by the company. The security danger beyond is the parasitic conveying, diffunding or leaking of agglomerated data to third parties with certain economic interest.[40]

[edit] Loneliness

There has been much speculation, on and off the Internet, about the meaningfulness of human interactions created by social media. Some of these views are summed up in an Atlantic article by [42]

[edit] Positive effects

In the book “Networked – The new social operating system” by Lee Rainie and Barry Wellman, the two authors reflect on, mainly positive, effects of social media and other internet based social networks. According to the authors, social media is used to document memories, learn about and explore things, advertise oneself and form friendships. For instance, they claim that the communication through internet based services can be done more privately than in real life. As a concrete example of the positive effects of social media, they use the Egyptian revolution in 2011, where people used Facebook to gather meetings, protest actions, etc.[43]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Kaplan Andreas M., Haenlein Michael, (2010), Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media, Business Horizons, Vol. 53, Issue 1 (page 61)
  2. ^ Kaplan, Andreas M. (2012) If you love something, let it go mobile: Mobile marketing and mobile social media 4×4, Business Horizons, 55(2), p. 129-139.
  3. ^ “Mark Nowotarski, “Do not Steal My Avatar! Challenges of Social Network Patents, IP Watchdog, January 23, 2011”. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  4. ^ “USPTO search on published patent applications mentioning “social media””. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  5. ^ “USPTO search on issued patents mentioning “social media””. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  6. ^ R. Levine, C. Locke, D. Searls, & D. Weinberger, Markets are conversations, New York: Perseus,, retrieved 2012-10-22
  7. ^ “Research Survey”. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  8. ^ “Inc. Technology Brent Leary Article”. 22 March 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  9. ^ “Edelman 2010 Trust Barometer Study”. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  10. ^ “Students Addicted to Social Media – New UM Study”. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
  11. ^ “FOMO: The Unintended Effects of Social Media Addiction”. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
  12. ^ Harris, Kandace (2008). “Using Social Networking Sites as Student Engagement Tools”. Diverse Issues in Higher Education 25 (18).
  13. ^ “Statistics”. Facebook. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
  14. ^ “Top 100 Social Media Colleges-StudentAdvisor”.
  15. ^ “Social Networks/Blogs Now Account for One in Every Four and a Half Minutes Online | Nielsen Wire”. 15 June 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  16. ^ Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  17. ^ “Social Media Stats in Australia Facebook Blogger Myspace”. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
  18. ^ “Boomers Joining Social Media at Record Rate”. CBS News. 15 November 2010.
  19. ^ Facebook’s S-1 filings with SEC
  20. ^ Retrieved 16 June 2012.
  21. ^ “Connecting and Engaging with Digital Indian Consumers | Nielsen Wire”. 15 November 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  22. ^ “Time Spent on Facebook up 700 Percent, but Still Tops for Video, According to Nielsen”. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
  23. ^ “Social Media Revolution Video”. Youtube. 22 June 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  24. ^ Kitch, Carolyn. “Anniversary Journalism, Collective Memory, and the Cultural Authority to Tell the Story of the American Past.” Journal of Popular Culture, 2002: 44-67.
  25. ^ Edy, Jill “Journalistic Uses of Collective Memory” Journal of Communication 1999:71-85
  26. ^ Pajala, Mary. “Television as an Archive of Memory?” Critical Studies in Television, 2010: 133-145.
  27. ^ Motti Neiger, Oren Meyers and Eyal Zandberg. On Media Memory: Collective Memory in a New Media Age. New York : Palgrave MacMillan, 2011
  28. ^ Barnhurst, Kevin, and Ellen Wartella. “Young Citizens, American TV Newscasts and the Collective Memory.” Ciritical Studies in Mass Media, 1998: 279-305.
  29. ^ Anderson, Nate; Technica, Ars (14 January 2011). “Tweeting Tyrants Out of Tunisia: Global Internet at Its Best”. Wired.
  30. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (9 February 2011). “Wired and Shrewd, Young Egyptians Guide Revolt”. The New York Times.
  31. ^ 23 February 2011 (23 February 2011). “The Arab Uprising’s Cascading Effects”. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  32. ^ Gladwell, Malcolm (1 March 2011). “Malcolm Gladwell and Clay Shirky on Social Media and Revolution, Foreign Affairs March/April 2011”. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  33. 978-0-385-52081-2.
  34. ^ Berners, Tim (4 May 2011). “Long Live the Web: A Call for Continued Open Standards and Neutrality”. Scientific American. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  35. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  36. ^ “Nicholas Carr, “Is Google Making Us Stupid?-What the Internet is doing to our brains””. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  37. ^ “Malcolm Gladwell, “Small Changes – Why the revolution will not be tweeted.””. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  38. ^ “Evgeny Morozov, Dissent, Vol 56, Number 4, Fall 2009, page 10-13”. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  39. ^ “Auer, Matthew R. “The Policy Sciences of Social Media”. Policy Studies Journal ”’39”’ (4): 709–736″. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  40. ^ “Jones, Soltren, Facebook: Threats to Privacy, MIT 2005” (PDF). Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  41. ^ “Is Facebook Making Us Lonely?”. The Atlantic. May 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
  42. 1452631913.
  43. 0262017199.

[edit] Further reading

[edit] External links

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Social Media, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.