LinkedIn Corporation
Type Public
Traded as NYSELNKD
Founded Santa Monica, California (2003)
Headquarters Mountain View, California, U.S.
Area served Worldwide
Founder(s) Reid Hoffman
Allen Blue
Konstantin Guericke
Eric Ly
Jean-Luc Vaillant
Key people Reid Hoffman
(Executive Chairman)
Jeff Weiner
Industry Internet
Revenue $522 million (2011)[1]
Employees 2,447 (2012)[1]
Slogan(s) Relationships Matter
IPv6 support No
Alexa rank Increase 11 (September 2012)[2]
Type of site Social network service
Advertising AdSense
Registration Required
Users 175 million[3] (June 2012)
Available in Multilingual
Launched May 5, 2003
Current status Active

LinkedIn ([4]

The site is available in [9]


[edit] History

LinkedIn Headquarters on Stierlin Court in Mountain View, CA

LinkedIn’s CEO is Jeff Weiner, previously a Yahoo! Inc. executive. The company was founded by Reid Hoffman and founding team members from PayPal and (Allen Blue, Eric Ly, Jean-Luc Vaillant, Lee Hower, Konstantin Guericke, Stephen Beitzel, David Eves, Ian McNish, Yan Pujante, and Chris Saccheri).

Founder Reid Hoffman, previously CEO of LinkedIn, is now Chairman of the Board. Bhushan Kasvekar is Vice President of Products.[13]

In 2003, Sequoia Capital led the Series A investment in the company.[15]

In 2010, LinkedIn opened a European headquarters in [21]

In 2011, LinkedIn earned $154.6 million dollars in advertising revenue alone, surpassing [23]

In the spring of 2012, LinkedIn expanded its office space by 57,120 square foot in the Financial District of San Francisco.[25]

In June 2012 [27]

In November of 2012, LinkedIn released their third quarter earnings, reporting earnings-per-share of $0.22 on revenue of $252 million. In result of these numbers, LinkedIn’s stock was up, trading at roughly $112 a share. [28]

[edit] Acquisitions

On February 24, 2012, LinkedIn announced its acquisition of the start-up Rapportive, which created a browser plug-in that takes contact information from social networks such as Twitter and Facebook, and places them into Google’s Gmail. LinkedIn has not stated yet how it will use the Rapportive’s technology and talent.[29]

On May 3, 2012, LinkedIn announced it had acquired SlideShare, deemed “the YouTube of slide shows,” for $119 million. It was stated that the purchase was done to give LinkedIn members a way to discover people through content. At the time Slideshare attracted 29 million monthly visitors.[30]

[edit] Membership

With more than 161 million subscribers[37] and nearly 1 million in Pakistan.

As of March 2011 the service had 44 million users in the US and 56 million outside.[38]

As of October 2011, LinkedIn has over 14 million students and recent college graduates as members.[39]

As of November of 2012, LinkedIn announced it had 187 million members. LinkedIn saw a 10 to 15 million member per quarter growth rate throughout 2012. [40]

[edit] Features

One purpose of the site is to allow registered users to maintain a list of contact details of people with whom they have some level of relationship, called Connections. Users can invite anyone (whether a site user or not) to become a connection. However, if the invitee selects “I don’t know” or “Spam”, this counts against the inviter. If the inviter gets too many of such responses, the account may be restricted or closed.[41]

This list of connections can then be used in a number of ways:

  • A contact network is built up consisting of their direct connections, the connections of each of their connections (termed second-degree connections) and also the connections of second-degree connections (termed third-degree connections). This can be used to gain an introduction to someone a person wishes to know through a mutual contact.
  • Users can upload their resume or design their own profile in order to showcase work and community experiences.
  • It can then be used to find jobs, people and business opportunities recommended by someone in one’s contact network.
  • Employers can list jobs and search for potential candidates.
  • Job seekers can review the profile of hiring managers and discover which of their existing contacts can introduce them.
  • Users can post their own photos and view photos of others to aid in identification.
  • Users can now follow different companies and can get notification about the new joining and offers available.
  • Users can save (i.e. bookmark) jobs which they would like to apply for.

The “gated-access approach” (where contact with any professional requires either an existing relationship, or the intervention of a contact of theirs) is intended to build trust among the service’s users. LinkedIn participates in the EU’s International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles.[42]

The feature LinkedIn Answers,[43] similar to Yahoo! Answers, allows users to ask questions for the community to answer. This feature is free, and the main difference from the latter is that questions are potentially more business-oriented, and the identity of the people asking and answering questions is known.

Another LinkedIn feature is LinkedIn Polls. In December 2011, LinkedIn announced that they are rolling out polls to their one million groups.[44]

In mid-2008, LinkedIn launched LinkedIn DirectAds as a form of sponsored advertising.[45]

In October 2008, LinkedIn revealed plans to opening its social network of 30 million professionals globally as a potential sample for business-to-business research. It is testing a potential social-network revenue model-research that to some appears more promising than advertising.[46]

[edit] Applications

In October 2008, LinkedIn enabled an “applications platform” that allows other online services to be embedded within a member’s profile page. Among the initial applications were an Amazon Reading List that allows LinkedIn members to display books they are reading, a connection to Tripit, and a Six Apart, WordPress and TypePad application that allows members to display their latest blog postings within their LinkedIn profile.[47]

In November 2010, LinkedIn allowed businesses to list products and services on company profile pages; it also permitted LinkedIn members to “recommend” products and services and write reviews.[48]

[edit] Mobile

A mobile version of the site was launched in February 2008, which gives access to a reduced feature set over a mobile phone. The mobile service is available in six languages: Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese and Spanish.[49]

In January 2011, LinkedIn acquired CardMunch, a mobile app maker that scans business cards and converts into contacts. LinkedIn plans to integrate this functionality into their services in the near future.[51]

[edit] Groups

LinkedIn also supports the formation of interest groups, and as of March 29, 2012 there are 1,248,019 such groups whose membership varies from 1 to 744,662.[54] although a very wide range of topics are covered mainly around professional and career issues, and there are currently 128,000 groups for both academic and corporate alumni.

Groups support a limited form of discussion area, moderated by the group owners and managers. Since groups offer the ability to reach a wide audience without so easily falling foul of anti-spam solutions, there is a constant stream of spam postings, and there now exist a range of firms who offer a spamming service for this very purpose. LinkedIn has devised a few mechanisms to reduce the volume of spam, but recently took the decision to remove the ability of group owners to inspect the email address of new members in order to determine if they were [55]

Groups may be private, accessible to members only or may be open to Internet users in general to read, though they must join in order to post messages.

[edit] Job listings

LinkedIn allows users to research companies with which they may be interested in working. When typing the name of a given company in the search box, statistics about the company are provided. These may include the ratio of female to male employees, the percentage of the most common titles/positions held within the company, the location of the company’s headquarters and offices, or a list of present and former employees.

In July 2011, LinkedIn launched a new feature allowing companies to include an “Apply with LinkedIn” button on job listing pages.[56]

[edit] Reception

LinkedIn has been described by online [59]

[edit] International reception

In 2009, Syrian users reported that LinkedIn server stopped accepting connections originating from IP addresses assigned to Syria. The company’s customer support stated that services provided by them are subject to US export and re-export control laws and regulations and “As such, and as a matter of corporate policy, we do not allow member accounts or access to our site from Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, or Syria.”[60]

In February 2011, it was reported that LinkedIn was being blocked in China after calls for a “[62]

[edit] SNA LinkedIn

The Search, Network, and Analytics team at LinkedIn has a web siteBigTable.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^
  2. ^ “ Site Info”. Alexa Internet. Retrieved 2012-09-25.
  3. ^ Press Release: LinkedIn to acquire SlideShare
  4. ^ LinkedIn Press About Page
  5. ^ “Look who’s talking Russian, Romanian and Turkish now!”. June 21, 2011. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
  6. ^ “LinkedIn launches in Japan”. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
  7. ^ “LinkedIn”. Retrieved December 17, 2010.
  8. ^ Womack, Brian (July 8, 2011). “LinkedIn Passes Myspace to Become No. 2 U.S. Social Network”. Bloomberg. Retrieved December 8, 2011.
  9. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
  10. ^ “About LinkedIn: Management”. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
  11. ^ “Press Release about Sequoia Capital Investing in LinkedIn”. Retrieved November 14, 2007.
  12. ^ “Press Releases: LinkedIn Premium Services Finding Rapid Adoption”. LinkedIn. March 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
  13. ^ Swisher, Kara (January 27, 2011). “Here Comes Another Web IPO: LinkedIn S-1 Filing Imminent”. Boom Town. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  14. ^ “LinkedIn Crunchbase Profile”. Retrieved December 8, 2011.
  15. ^ Guynn, Jessica (June 17, 2008). “LinkedIn networks way to $53-million investment”. The Los Angeles Times.,0,6631759.story. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
  16. dead link]
  17. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
  18. ^ Hardy, Quentin (August 4, 2010). “LinkedIn Hooks Up”. Forbes. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
  19. ^ “Does local beat global in the professional-networking business?”. The Economist. November 19, 2009. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
  20. ^ Fusfeld, Adam (September 23, 2010). “2010 Digital 100 Companies 1–100”. Retrieved December 17, 2010.
  21. ^ Demos, Telis; Menn, Joseph (January 27, 2011). “LinkedIn looks for boost with IPO”. Financial Times. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
  22. ^ “Social Network Ads: LinkedIn Falls Behind Twitter; Facebook Biggest of All”. Lunden, Ingrid January 31, 2012.
  23. ^ “Stocks to Watch: Nuance Communications, LinkedIn, Merck and More”. Thomson Maya and Pope-Chappell Maya February 13, 2012.
  24. ^ “LinkedIn Expands into San Francisco”. January 16, 2012. Sankin, Aaron.
  25. ^ “LinkedIn Beats The Street, Q1 Revenue Up 101 Percent To $188.5M; Net Income Up 140 Percent”. May 4, 2012. Rao, Leena.
  26. ^ “LinkedIn Confirms Account Passwords Hacked”. PC June 6, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
  27. ^ Finkle, Jim and Jennifer Saba (June 6, 2012). “LinkedIn suffers data breach”. Reuters. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
  28. ^ Fiegerman, Seth. November 1, 2012. “LinkedIn Now Has 187 Million Members.”
  29. ^ “LinkedIn Buys Rapportive Gmail Contact Plug-In” Boulton, Clint. February 24, 2012.
  30. ^ “LinkedIn Spends $119 Million on SlideShare – the YouTube of Slideshows”. Hernandez, Brian Anthony. May, 3rd 2012.
  31. ^ Press Release: LinkedIn to acquire SlideShare
  32. ^ “LinkedIn competitor Viadeo hits 30 million members”. May 11, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  33. ^ “Facts and Figures”. XING. September 1, 2010. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
  34. ^ “LinkedIn now adding two members every second”. Retrieved October 31, 2011.
  35. ^ “LinkedIn: 50 million professionals worldwide. LinkedIn. October 14, 2009. Retrieved November 3, 2009”. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
  36. dead link]
  37. ^ “LinkedIn reaches 1 million users in Spain, competitors keep up the pressure. Retrieved July 25, 2010”. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  38. ^ Sid Yadav, “LinkedIn reaches 100 million users, but how many are coming back?” March 22, 2011. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
  39. ^ “LinkedIn Background”. LinkedIn Facts. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
  40. ^ Fiegerman, Seth. November 1, 2012. “LinkedIn Now Has 187 Million Members.”
  41. ^ LinkedIn help: Account restriction (retrieved 2011)
  42. ^ “Privacy Policy”. LinkedIn. July 14, 2006. Retrieved January 17, 2008.
  43. ^ “LinkedIn Answers unlocks the world’s best source of business knowledge: trusted professionals”. January 16, 2007. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
  44. ^ Wasserman, Todd (December 14, 2011). “LinkedIn polling”.
  45. ^ LinkedIn DirectAds launch, by Zaki Usman Nov 2008
  46. ^ LinkedIn’s promising new revenue model: sending you surveys. By: Neff, Jack, Advertising Age, 00018899, 10/27/2008, Vol. 79, Issue 40. Database: Business Source Complete
  47. ^ Facebook in a Suit: LinkedIn Launches Applications Platform, BusinessWeek, October 28, 2008
  48. ^ “LinkedIn Adopts ‘Recommend’ Over ‘Like'”,, November 2, 2010
  49. ^ “Social-networking site LinkedIN introduces mobile version”. Retrieved February 25, 2008.
  50. ^ CardMunch acquired by LinkedIn, Feb 2011
  51. ^ Geron, Tommio (August 16, 2011). “LinkedIn Revamps iPhone, Android Apps, Launches HTML5 App”. Article. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  52. ^ Retrieved December 8, 2011.
  53. ^ “World’s Largest LinkedIn Group Breaks The 700,000 Member mark”. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
  54.,_job_leads_and_job_connections!#Membership. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
  55. ^ “Groups”. LinkedIn Corporation. Retrieved March 26, 2012.
  56. ^ LinkedIn launches job application plugin.” July 25, 2009. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
  57. ^ “Five Benefits of LinkedIn for Organizations (and IT Pros) | TechRepublic.” Web. May 9, 2011.
  58. ^ “, a business-orientated networking site, can be an ideal way for professionals to present an online profile of themselves … Unlike social networking sites, [with] LinkedIn you’re outlining all your credentials; presenting the professional rather than the personal you. Considering the sheer vastness of the digital space, the potential for building up a solid base of contacts and fostering new business relationships is boundless.” O’Sullivan, James (2011), “Make the most of the networking tools that are available”, Evening Echo, May 9, 2011. Pg 32. Note that the Evening Echo is located close to the European headquarters of LinkedIn
  59. ^
  60. ^ “Syria: Linkedin Kicks Off Syrian Users!”. Global Voices Advocacy. April 18, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
  61. ^ Ungerleider, Neal (February 25, 2011). “China blocks access to LinkedIn”. Fast Company. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
  62. ^ Baker, Liana (February 25, 2011). “LinkedIn website working again in China”. Reuters.
  63. ^ “”. August 11, 2011. Retrieved December 8, 2011.
  64. ^ “”. Retrieved December 8, 2011.

[edit] External links

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Linkedin, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.